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Smoking, age and failure to have total shoulder arthroplasty

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Young people have been encouraged to smoke because they see it as glamorous and macho. Because of its habit-forming ability, older people tend to continue smoking.




Smoking can cause many physiological problems, including complications after joint replacement.





The authors of The impact of tobacco use on clinical outcomes and long-term survivorship after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty explored the effect of smoking status on the outcomes of anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. 

Based on their smoking history at the time of their operation, patients were divided into three groups: 1) Non-smokers (n=78), 2) Former smokers (n=49), and 3) Current smokers (n=16). Individuals who had never smoked any tobacco were called nonsmokers. Ex-smokers were those who stopped smoking tobacco within one year of their index procedure. They had previously smoked at most 0.25 packs per day. Individuals who have been smoking for at least one year before surgery were considered current smokers. They are those who smoked at least 0.25 pack per day during that year.

Smokers were, interestingly and importantly, not only at the time of surgery but also during…



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